In & Into
In and into usually have literal, spatial meanings (come in / get into a car, etc). Figuratively, we can also enter into an agreement.
As mentioned above, we are interested in, or take or have an interest in, a subject. To be interested in doing something means to want to do, or be considering doing: I'm interested in taking up golf.
We also take part in (= participate in) activities: On the university campus there are many opportunities to take part in sports, drama, student politics and all sorts of other activities.
Discussing changes of level (of numbers / price / quality / temperature / unemployment, etc.), we can talk about a decline / fall / growth / increase / lack of movement / rise / spike in these things:
We can look into (= investigate) a subject: Police are looking into further allegations of illegal payments in the world of football.
We can also cut or divide something into parts: She carefully cut the cake into four equal portions. (For translate from one language into another, see above.)
Of, used for identification, follows the names of capital cities: Lima is the capital of Peru;
- titles indicating hierarchy or function: the President of France, the Head of my department, the captain of the team, the Principal of the college, the CEO of the company, the Leader of the Party.
- words indicating family and other personal relations: a friend of John's a colleague of mine, the father of the boy who won the prize.
- nouns and adjectives indicating position: the south of France, twenty miles west of Algiers , the top of the mountain, the middle of the room, the best of the candidates, the natural home of the gorilla, the end of the story.
- and other identifying words: a type of insect, brands of car, examples of good practice, lists of words, a description of the place, an analysis of a problem.
We may have in our minds a conception, an idea, an impression, or a notion of something:
If the case comes to court, the accused person may be convicted (= found guilty) of or acquitted (= found not guilty) of the charge. For a conviction, there must be proof of the person's guilt. We can also have proof of a scientific theory (= overwhelming evidence for it). The verb prove isn't followed by a preposition: They proved their case.
We may approve of or disapprove of someone's actions: I approve of the group's general objectives, but I disapprove of their breaking the law in their attempt to achieve them.
We may be afraid or terrified of something or someone:
People may also die of a disease: "What did she die of?" "She died of pneumonia."
Someone or something can remind us of someone or something, deliberately or accidentally:
A lot of (food, work, etc.) = much; a lot of (people, questions, etc.) = many. We can also talk about a lack of money / food / experience, etc.; but we lack money, food or experience (without a preposition). Strangely, the adjective or present participle, lacking, is followed by in: lacking in experience / lacking in patience,etc.
Of is used after many adjectives referring to someone's behaviour. We say that it is (or was) annoying / clever / cruel / cunning / generous / good / intelligent / kind / mean / nice / noble / polite / rude / stupid /sweet / thoughtful / thoughtless / typical / unkind / untypical of someone to do something:
We can be proud of or ashamed of something, ourselves or our behaviour:
Other adjectives followed by of include free and tired:
We can take care of (= look after) a child, a sick person or something that we value:
When asleep, we may dream about all types of things, but awake, we dream of things that we would love to do:
The Grammar blog is written by Stephen Smith who has been a teacher with OISE for over 10 years.